ⓘ Geology


ⓘ Geology

Geology and -λoγία, -logia) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earths past climates.

Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earths structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.


1.1. Geologic materials Rock

The majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them see diagram.

When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt magma or lava, it is an igneous rock. This rock can be weathered and eroded, then redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can then be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric. All three types may melt again, and when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify.


1.2. Geologic materials Tests

To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals of which they are composed. Each mineral has distinct physical properties, and there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for:

  • Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch.
  • Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral.
  • Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
  • Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs.
  • Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing.
  • Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Mostly diagnostic but impurities can change a minerals color.
  • Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, such as halite which tastes like table salt.
  • Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along closely spaced parallel planes.
  • Luster: Quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral. Examples are metallic, pearly, waxy, dull.
  • Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate. The color of the streak can help name the mineral.

1.3. Geologic materials Unlithified material

Geologists also study unlithified materials referred to as drift, which typically come from more recent deposits. These materials are superficial deposits that lie above the bedrock. This study is often known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history.


1.4. Geologic materials Magma and lava

However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks. The active flow of molten rock is closely studied in volcanology, and igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source.


2.1. Whole-Earth structure Plate tectonics

In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earths lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, solid, upper mantle, which is called the asthenosphere. This theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.

There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle that is, the heat transfer caused by bulk movement of molecules within fluids. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is actually the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics.

The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries.

For example:

  • Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
  • Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another.

Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics also has provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift, in which the continents move across the surface of the Earth over geologic time. They also provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology. The power of the theory of plate tectonics lies in its ability to combine all of these observations into a single theory of how the lithosphere moves over the convecting mantle.


2.2. Whole-Earth structure Earth structure

Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.

Seismologists can use the arrival times of seismic waves in reverse to image the interior of the Earth. Early advances in this field showed the existence of a liquid outer core where shear waves were not able to propagate and a dense solid inner core. These advances led to the development of a layered model of the Earth, with a crust and lithosphere on top, the mantle below separated within itself by seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 kilometers, and the outer core and inner core below that. More recently, seismologists have been able to create detailed images of wave speeds inside the earth in the same way a doctor images a body in a CT scan. These images have led to a much more detailed view of the interior of the Earth, and have replaced the simplified layered model with a much more dynamic model.

Mineralogists have been able to use the pressure and temperature data from the seismic and modelling studies alongside knowledge of the elemental composition of the Earth to reproduce these conditions in experimental settings and measure changes in crystal structure. These studies explain the chemical changes associated with the major seismic discontinuities in the mantle and show the crystallographic structures expected in the inner core of the Earth.


3. Geologic time

The geologic time scale encompasses the history of the Earth. It is bracketed at the earliest by the dates of the first Solar System material at 4.567 Ga or 4.567 billion years ago and the formation of the Earth at 4.54 Ga 4.54 billion years, which is the beginning of the informally recognized Hadean eon – a division of geologic time. At the later end of the scale, it is marked by the present day in the Holocene epoch.


3.1. Geologic time Timescale of the Earth

The following four timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon. Therefore, the second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon. In a similar way, the most recent era is expanded in the third timeline, and the most recent period is expanded in the fourth timeline.


3.2. Geologic time Important milestones on Earth

  • 542 ± 0.3 Ma: Cambrian explosion – vast multiplication of hard-bodied life; first abundant fossils; start of the Paleozoic
  • 3.9 Ma: First Australopithecus, direct ancestor to modern Homo sapiens, appear
  • c. 380 Ma: First vertebrate land animals
  • c. 2.3 Ga: Oxygenated atmosphere, first snowball Earth
  • c. 3.5 Ga: Start of photosynthesis
  • 66 Ma: Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction – Dinosaurs die; end of Mesozoic and beginning of Cenozoic
  • 250 Ma: Permian-Triassic extinction – 90% of all land animals die; end of Paleozoic and beginning of Mesozoic
  • 4.567 Ga gigaannum: billion years ago: Solar system formation
  • 200 ka kiloannum: thousand years ago: First modern Homo sapiens appear in East Africa
  • c. 7 Ma: First hominins appear
  • 4.54 Ga: Accretion, or formation, of Earth
  • c. 4 Ga: End of Late Heavy Bombardment, first life
  • 730–635 Ma megaannum: million years ago: second snowball Earth

4.1. Dating methods Relative dating

Methods for relative dating were developed when geology first emerged as a natural science. Geologists still use the following principles today as a means to provide information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events.

The principle of uniformitarianism states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earths crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time. A fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton is that "the present is the key to the past." In Huttons words: "the past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now."

The principle of intrusive relationships concerns crosscutting intrusions. In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rock, it can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock. Different types of intrusions include stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.

The principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut. Faults are younger than the rocks they cut; accordingly, if a fault is found that penetrates some formations but not those on top of it, then the formations that were cut are older than the fault, and the ones that are not cut must be younger than the fault. Finding the key bed in these situations may help determine whether the fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault.

The principle of inclusions and components states that, with sedimentary rocks, if inclusions or clasts are found in a formation, then the inclusions must be older than the formation that contains them. For example, in sedimentary rocks, it is common for gravel from an older formation to be ripped up and included in a newer layer. A similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found. These foreign bodies are picked up as magma or lava flows, and are incorporated, later to cool in the matrix. As a result, xenoliths are older than the rock that contains them.

The principle of original horizontality states that the deposition of sediments occurs as essentially horizontal beds. Observation of modern marine and non-marine sediments in a wide variety of environments supports this generalization although cross-bedding is inclined, the overall orientation of cross-bedded units is horizontal.

The principle of superposition states that a sedimentary rock layer in a tectonically undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it. Logically a younger layer cannot slip beneath a layer previously deposited. This principle allows sedimentary layers to be viewed as a form of vertical time line, a partial or complete record of the time elapsed from deposition of the lowest layer to deposition of the highest bed.

The principle of faunal succession is based on the appearance of fossils in sedimentary rocks. As organisms exist during the same period throughout the world, their presence or sometimes absence provides a relative age of the formations where they appear. Based on principles that William Smith laid out almost a hundred years before the publication of Charles Darwins theory of evolution, the principles of succession developed independently of evolutionary thought. The principle becomes quite complex, however, given the uncertainties of fossilization, localization of fossil types due to lateral changes in habitat facies change in sedimentary strata, and that not all fossils formed globally at the same time.


4.2. Dating methods Absolute dating

Geologists also use methods to determine the absolute age of rock samples and geological events. These dates are useful on their own and may also be used in conjunction with relative dating methods or to calibrate relative methods.

At the beginning of the 20th century, advancement in geological science was facilitated by the ability to obtain accurate absolute dates to geologic events using radioactive isotopes and other methods. This changed the understanding of geologic time. Previously, geologists could only use fossils and stratigraphic correlation to date sections of rock relative to one another. With isotopic dates, it became possible to assign absolute ages to rock units, and these absolute dates could be applied to fossil sequences in which there was datable material, converting the old relative ages into new absolute ages.

For many geologic applications, isotope ratios of radioactive elements are measured in minerals that give the amount of time that has passed since a rock passed through its particular closure temperature, the point at which different radiometric isotopes stop diffusing into and out of the crystal lattice. These are used in geochronologic and thermochronologic studies. Common methods include uranium-lead dating, potassium-argon dating, argon-argon dating and uranium-thorium dating. These methods are used for a variety of applications. Dating of lava and volcanic ash layers found within a stratigraphic sequence can provide absolute age data for sedimentary rock units that do not contain radioactive isotopes and calibrate relative dating techniques. These methods can also be used to determine ages of pluton emplacement. Thermochemical techniques can be used to determine temperature profiles within the crust, the uplift of mountain ranges, and paleotopography.

Fractionation of the lanthanide series elements is used to compute ages since rocks were removed from the mantle.

Other methods are used for more recent events. Optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic radionuclide dating are used to date surfaces and/or erosion rates. Dendrochronology can also be used for the dating of landscapes. Radiocarbon dating is used for geologically young materials containing organic carbon.


5. Geological development of an area

The geology of an area changes through time as rock units are deposited and inserted, and deformational processes change their shapes and locations.

Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrusion into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude.

After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side strike-slip motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates.

When rock units are placed under horizontal compression, they shorten and become thicker. Because rock units, other than muds, do not significantly change in volume, this is accomplished in two primary ways: through faulting and folding. In the shallow crust, where brittle deformation can occur, thrust faults form, which causes deeper rock to move on top of shallower rock. Because deeper rock is often older, as noted by the principle of superposition, this can result in older rocks moving on top of younger ones. Movement along faults can result in folding, either because the faults are not planar or because rock layers are dragged along, forming drag folds as slip occurs along the fault. Deeper in the Earth, rocks behave plastically and fold instead of faulting. These folds can either be those where the material in the center of the fold buckles upwards, creating "antiforms", or where it buckles downwards, creating "synforms". If the tops of the rock units within the folds remain pointing upwards, they are called anticlines and synclines, respectively. If some of the units in the fold are facing downward, the structure is called an overturned anticline or syncline, and if all of the rock units are overturned or the correct up-direction is unknown, they are simply called by the most general terms, antiforms and synforms.

Even higher pressures and temperatures during horizontal shortening can cause both folding and metamorphism of the rocks. This metamorphism causes changes in the mineral composition of the rocks; creates a foliation, or planar surface, that is related to mineral growth under stress. This can remove signs of the original textures of the rocks, such as bedding in sedimentary rocks, flow features of lavas, and crystal patterns in crystalline rocks.

Extension causes the rock units as a whole to become longer and thinner. This is primarily accomplished through normal faulting and through the ductile stretching and thinning. Normal faults drop rock units that are higher below those that are lower. This typically results in younger units ending up below older units. Stretching of units can result in their thinning. In fact, at one location within the Maria Fold and Thrust Belt, the entire sedimentary sequence of the Grand Canyon appears over a length of less than a meter. Rocks at the depth to be ductilely stretched are often also metamorphosed. These stretched rocks can also pinch into lenses, known as boudins, after the French word for "sausage" because of their visual similarity.

Where rock units slide past one another, strike-slip faults develop in shallow regions, and become shear zones at deeper depths where the rocks deform ductilely.

The addition of new rock units, both depositionally and intrusively, often occurs during deformation. Faulting and other deformational processes result in the creation of topographic gradients, causing material on the rock unit that is increasing in elevation to be eroded by hillslopes and channels. These sediments are deposited on the rock unit that is going down. Continual motion along the fault maintains the topographic gradient in spite of the movement of sediment, and continues to create accommodation space for the material to deposit. Deformational events are often also associated with volcanism and igneous activity. Volcanic ashes and lavas accumulate on the surface, and igneous intrusions enter from below. Dikes, long, planar igneous intrusions, enter along cracks, and therefore often form in large numbers in areas that are being actively deformed. This can result in the emplacement of dike swarms, such as those that are observable across the Canadian shield, or rings of dikes around the lava tube of a volcano.

All of these processes do not necessarily occur in a single environment, and do not necessarily occur in a single order. The Hawaiian Islands, for example, consist almost entirely of layered basaltic lava flows. The sedimentary sequences of the mid-continental United States and the Grand Canyon in the southwestern United States contain almost-undeformed stacks of sedimentary rocks that have remained in place since Cambrian time. Other areas are much more geologically complex. In the southwestern United States, sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive rocks have been metamorphosed, faulted, foliated, and folded. Even older rocks, such as the Acasta gneiss of the Slave craton in northwestern Canada, the oldest known rock in the world have been metamorphosed to the point where their origin is undiscernable without laboratory analysis. In addition, these processes can occur in stages. In many places, the Grand Canyon in the southwestern United States being a very visible example, the lower rock units were metamorphosed and deformed, and then deformation ended and the upper, undeformed units were deposited. Although any amount of rock emplacement and rock deformation can occur, and they can occur any number of times, these concepts provide a guide to understanding the geological history of an area.


6. Methods of geology

Geologists use a number of field, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods to decipher Earth history and to understand the processes that occur on and inside the Earth. In typical geological investigations, geologists use primary information related to petrology the study of rocks, stratigraphy the study of sedimentary layers, and structural geology the study of positions of rock units and their deformation. In many cases, geologists also study modern soils, rivers, landscapes, and glaciers; investigate past and current life and biogeochemical pathways, and use geophysical methods to investigate the subsurface. Sub-specialities of geology may distinguish endogenous and exogenous geology.


6.1. Methods of geology Field methods

Geological field work varies depending on the task at hand. Typical fieldwork could consist of:

  • Geological mapping
  • Surficial mapping: recording the locations of soils and surficial deposits
  • Stratigraphic mapping: pinpointing the locations of sedimentary facies lithofacies and biofacies or the mapping of isopachs of equal thickness of sedimentary rock
  • Structural mapping: identifying the locations of major rock units and the faults and folds that led to their placement there.
  • River-channel change through migration and avulsion
  • Hillslope processes
  • Work to understand change across landscapes, including
  • Patterns of erosion and deposition
  • compilation of topographic maps
  • Surveying of topographic features
  • Shallow seismic surveys
  • Subsurface mapping through geophysical methods
  • Aeromagnetic surveys
  • These methods include
  • Electrical resistivity tomography
  • Ground-penetrating radar
  • They aid in
  • Finding groundwater
  • Locating buried archaeological artifacts
  • Hydrocarbon exploration
  • Measuring and describing stratigraphic sections on the surface
  • High-resolution stratigraphy
  • Well drilling and logging
  • Biogeochemistry and geomicrobiology
  • Collecting samples to
  • determine biochemical pathways
  • identify new species of organisms
  • identify new chemical compounds
  • understand early life on Earth and how it functioned and metabolized
  • and to use these discoveries to
  • find important compounds for use in pharmaceuticals
  • Paleontology: excavation of fossil material
  • For museums and education
  • For research into past life and evolution
  • Collection of samples for geochronology and thermochronology
  • Glaciology: measurement of characteristics of glaciers and their motion

6.2. Methods of geology Petrology

In addition to identifying rocks in the field lithology, petrologists identify rock samples in the laboratory. Two of the primary methods for identifying rocks in the laboratory are through optical microscopy and by using an electron microprobe. In an optical mineralogy analysis, petrologists analyze thin sections of rock samples using a petrographic microscope, where the minerals can be identified through their different properties in plane-polarized and cross-polarized light, including their birefringence, pleochroism, twinning, and interference properties with a conoscopic lens. In the electron microprobe, individual locations are analyzed for their exact chemical compositions and variation in composition within individual crystals. Stable and radioactive isotope studies provide insight into the geochemical evolution of rock units.

Petrologists can also use fluid inclusion data and perform high temperature and pressure physical experiments to understand the temperatures and pressures at which different mineral phases appear, and how they change through igneous and metamorphic processes. This research can be extrapolated to the field to understand metamorphic processes and the conditions of crystallization of igneous rocks. This work can also help to explain processes that occur within the Earth, such as subduction and magma chamber evolution.


6.3. Methods of geology Structural geology

Structural geologists use microscopic analysis of oriented thin sections of geologic samples to observe the fabric within the rocks, which gives information about strain within the crystalline structure of the rocks. They also plot and combine measurements of geological structures to better understand the orientations of faults and folds to reconstruct the history of rock deformation in the area. In addition, they perform analog and numerical experiments of rock deformation in large and small settings.

The analysis of structures is often accomplished by plotting the orientations of various features onto stereonets. A stereonet is a stereographic projection of a sphere onto a plane, in which planes are projected as lines and lines are projected as points. These can be used to find the locations of fold axes, relationships between faults, and relationships between other geologic structures.

Among the most well-known experiments in structural geology are those involving orogenic wedges, which are zones in which mountains are built along convergent tectonic plate boundaries. In the analog versions of these experiments, horizontal layers of sand are pulled along a lower surface into a back stop, which results in realistic-looking patterns of faulting and the growth of a critically tapered all angles remain the same orogenic wedge. Numerical models work in the same way as these analog models, though they are often more sophisticated and can include patterns of erosion and uplift in the mountain belt. This helps to show the relationship between erosion and the shape of a mountain range. These studies can also give useful information about pathways for metamorphism through pressure, temperature, space, and time.


6.4. Methods of geology Stratigraphy

In the laboratory, stratigraphers analyze samples of stratigraphic sections that can be returned from the field, such as those from drill cores. Stratigraphers also analyze data from geophysical surveys that show the locations of stratigraphic units in the subsurface. Geophysical data and well logs can be combined to produce a better view of the subsurface, and stratigraphers often use computer programs to do this in three dimensions. Stratigraphers can then use these data to reconstruct ancient processes occurring on the surface of the Earth, interpret past environments, and locate areas for water, coal, and hydrocarbon extraction.

In the laboratory, biostratigraphers analyze rock samples from outcrop and drill cores for the fossils found in them. These fossils help scientists to date the core and to understand the depositional environment in which the rock units formed. Geochronologists precisely date rocks within the stratigraphic section to provide better absolute bounds on the timing and rates of deposition. Magnetic stratigraphers look for signs of magnetic reversals in igneous rock units within the drill cores. Other scientists perform stable-isotope studies on the rocks to gain information about past climate.


7. Planetary geology

With the advent of space exploration in the twentieth century, geologists have begun to look at other planetary bodies in the same ways that have been developed to study the Earth. This new field of study is called planetary geology sometimes known as astrogeology and relies on known geologic principles to study other bodies of the solar system.

Although the Greek-language-origin prefix geo refers to Earth, "geology" is often used in conjunction with the names of other planetary bodies when describing their composition and internal processes: examples are "the geology of Mars" and "Lunar geology". Specialised terms such as selenology studies of the Moon, areology of Mars, etc., are also in use.

Although planetary geologists are interested in studying all aspects of other planets, a significant focus is to search for evidence of past or present life on other worlds. This has led to many missions whose primary or ancillary purpose is to examine planetary bodies for evidence of life. One of these is the Phoenix lander, which analyzed Martian polar soil for water, chemical, and mineralogical constituents related to biological processes.


8.1. Applied geology Economic geology

Economic geology is a branch of geology that deals with aspects of economic minerals that humankind uses to fulfill various needs. Economic minerals are those extracted profitably for various practical uses. Economic geologists help locate and manage the Earths natural resources, such as petroleum and coal, as well as mineral resources, which include metals such as iron, copper, and uranium.


8.2. Applied geology Mining geology

Mining geology consists of the extractions of mineral resources from the Earth. Some resources of economic interests include gemstones, metals such as gold and copper, and many minerals such as asbestos, perlite, mica, phosphates, zeolites, clay, pumice, quartz, and silica, as well as elements such as sulfur, chlorine, and helium.


8.3. Applied geology Petroleum geology

Petroleum geologists study the locations of the subsurface of the Earth that can contain extractable hydrocarbons, especially petroleum and natural gas. Because many of these reservoirs are found in sedimentary basins, they study the formation of these basins, as well as their sedimentary and tectonic evolution and the present-day positions of the rock units.


8.4. Applied geology Engineering geology

Engineering geology is the application of the geologic principles to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of engineering works are properly addressed.

In the field of civil engineering, geological principles and analyses are used in order to ascertain the mechanical principles of the material on which structures are built. This allows tunnels to be built without collapsing, bridges and skyscrapers to be built with sturdy foundations, and buildings to be built that will not settle in clay and mud.


8.5. Applied geology Hydrology and environmental issues

Geology and geologic principles can be applied to various environmental problems such as stream restoration, the restoration of brownfields, and the understanding of the interaction between natural habitat and the geologic environment. Groundwater hydrology, or hydrogeology, is used to locate groundwater, which can often provide a ready supply of uncontaminated water and is especially important in arid regions, and to monitor the spread of contaminants in groundwater wells.

Geologists also obtain data through stratigraphy, boreholes, core samples, and ice cores. Ice cores and sediment cores are used to for paleoclimate reconstructions, which tell geologists about past and present temperature, precipitation, and sea level across the globe. These datasets are our primary source of information on global climate change outside of instrumental data.


8.6. Applied geology Natural hazards

Geologists and geophysicists study natural hazards in order to enact safe building codes and warning systems that are used to prevent loss of property and life. Examples of important natural hazards that are pertinent to geology as opposed those that are mainly or only pertinent to meteorology are:


9. History

The study of the physical material of the Earth dates back at least to ancient Greece when Theophrastus 372–287 BCE wrote the work Peri Lithon On Stones. During the Roman period, Pliny the Elder wrote in detail of the many minerals and metals then in practical use – even correctly noting the origin of amber.

Some modern scholars, such as Fielding H. Garrison, are of the opinion that the origin of the science of geology can be traced to Persia after the Muslim conquests had come to an end. Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni 973–1048 CE was one of the earliest Persian geologists, whose works included the earliest writings on the geology of India, hypothesizing that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea. Drawing from Greek and Indian scientific literature that were not destroyed by the Muslim conquests, the Persian scholar Ibn Sina Avicenna, 981–1037 proposed detailed explanations for the formation of mountains, the origin of earthquakes, and other topics central to modern geology, which provided an essential foundation for the later development of the science. In China, the polymath Shen Kuo 1031–1095 formulated a hypothesis for the process of land formation: based on his observation of fossil animal shells in a geological stratum in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean, he inferred that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt.

Nicolas Steno 1638–1686 is credited with the law of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, and the principle of lateral continuity: three defining principles of stratigraphy.

The word geology was first used by Ulisse Aldrovandi in 1603, then by Jean-Andre Deluc in 1778 and introduced as a fixed term by Horace-Benedict de Saussure in 1779. The word is derived from the Greek γῆ, gê, meaning "earth" and λόγος, logos, meaning "speech". But according to another source, the word "geology" comes from a Norwegian, Mikkel Pederson Escholt 1600–1699, who was a priest and scholar. Escholt first used the definition in his book titled, Geologia Norvegica 1657.

William Smith 1769–1839 drew some of the first geological maps and began the process of ordering rock strata layers by examining the fossils contained in them.

James Hutton 1726-1797 is often viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had previously been supposed to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land. Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795 Vol. 1, Vol. 2.

Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism, which is the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, led by Abraham Werner, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level gradually dropped over time.

The first geological map of the U.S. was produced in 1809 by William Maclure. In 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States. Almost every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him, the Allegheny Mountains being crossed and recrossed some 50 times. The results of his unaided labours were submitted to the American Philosophical Society in a memoir entitled Observations on the Geology of the United States explanatory of a Geological Map, and published in the Societys Transactions, together with the nations first geological map. This antedates William Smiths geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks.

Sir Charles Lyell 1797-1875 first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830. This book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin, successfully promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism. This theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earths history and are still occurring today. In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earths features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not widely accepted at the time.

Much of 19th-century geology revolved around the question of the Earths exact age. Estimates varied from a few hundred thousand to billions of years. By the early 20th century, radiometric dating allowed the Earths age to be estimated at two billion years. The awareness of this vast amount of time opened the door to new theories about the processes that shaped the planet.

Some of the most significant advances in 20th-century geology have been the development of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s and the refinement of estimates of the planets age. Plate tectonics theory arose from two separate geological observations: seafloor spreading and continental drift. The theory revolutionized the Earth sciences. Today the Earth is known to be approximately 4.5 billion years old.

Users also searched:

california geology news, geology news, geology research, nature geology journal, recent geological discoveries 2018, recent geological discoveries, structural geology, geology, nature, factor, impact, geoscience, geoscience impact factor, geological, news, recent, discoveries, geologic nature, structural, research, california, recent geological discoveries, geology news, natures, geologic, geologists, california geology news, journal, nature geology, geologist, geology research, structural geology, nature geology journal, natures geological, nature geoscience impact factor, recent geological discoveries 2018, geoscience impact factor 2018,


Landforms and geology Scottish Natural Heritage.

Structural geology is the study of the deformation of the surface and subsurface of the Earth and other planetary bodies. This deformation reflects past changes. The Emergence of Geology as a Scientific Discipline SAO NASA ADS. Nature Geology Weather and Farming on the Isle of Islay. Geology Books Downloads on iTunes Apple Books. Aug 24, 2018 The highest peak in Oregons Coast Range stands as evidence of greater forces at work. PDF Inscriptions of Nature Geology and the Naturalization of. Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

Applied geology.

Sep 7, 2019 A meteorite found in Australia - called the Wedderburn iron meteorite because of where it was found - contains edscottite, an iron carbide. Geology Illinois Wesleyan. Geology is everywhere. Would you like to know how to read the rocks and landscape, and how to make sense of debates over natural resources? Learn the. Geology Latest research and news Nature. Scientific Method. The scientific method is a set of steps that help us to answer questions. When we use logical steps and control the number of things that can. Uniformitarianism, the uniformity of nature, and paleoecology: New. Feb 23, 2011 Introduction to the Nature and Geology of Iceland. Authors and affiliations. Thomas Denk Email author Fridgeir Grimsson Reinhard.

What Geology Has to Say About Building a 1.000 Mile Border Wall.

Reykjanes Peninsula – Geology and Nature Tour. Iceland Geothermal offers a trip through the Blue Diamond Tourist Route in Geothermal Reykjanes. For Mar Nature Trivia Night – Rock out! All about Geology. Correlation Geology. The Nature Of Sedimentary Strata. Sedimentary rocks provide information about Earth history that is generally not available from igneous. Geology department head publishes article in Nature Geoscience. Geology rocks pun intended!! Earthquakes may not be the first thing that comes to mind when you think of Illinois geology, so come and learn about the. Geology Nature Geoscience. Mar 1, 2019 Geology department head publishes article in Nature Geoscience. Submitted by Malorie Wagner. Pamela Kempton, head of the College of Arts. Linking Geology and Biodiversity Convention on Biological. GEOL 105Lg Planet Earth 4, FaSpSm Geologic structure and evolution of planet GEOL 130Lxg The Nature of Scientific Inquiry 4, FaSp Examination of the.

Courses Department of Earth Sciences USC Dana and David.

From Nature, volume 534, issue 7608. Geology North Americas broken heart 2013. by Marshall Icy heart could be key to Plutos strange geology 2016. Geology Research William & Mary. Aug 17, 2019 A ranger guided program about the geology of Sterling Forest. Free admission & free parking! For ages 5 to 13. The group will meet at the. The geology of a part of Acadia and the nature of the Acadian. Jun 22, 2019 When did Michigan become a state? What is another name for a groundhog? True or False, Monarch Butterflies are venomous. Do these.

Natures objects geology, aesthetics, and the understanding of.

The earliest and longest record of Wyomings complex geological history is in the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian Era. These basement. Reykjanes Peninsula Geology and Nature Tour World. Download the perfect geology pictures. Find over 100 of the best free geology images. Free for commercial use Nature Images Go to Christopher Burnss. Nature of arizonite Economic Geology GeoScienceWorld. Browse, buy, and download Science & Nature books from Apple Books. Apple Books has lots of ways to help you find Science & Nature books youll love. Controversies in the history of geology and their educational. Jun 12, 2018 The Landscape of Duluth is shaped by what is underfoot: the geology. This program will cover a brief introduction to the rock cycle, the geologic. Introduction to the Nature and Geology of Iceland SpringerLink. Aug 17, 2019 Eventbrite San Mateo County Parks presents Nature Hike The Geology of Earthquakes Saturday, August 17, 2019 at Sawyer Camp Trail.

The Anatomy of Nature Geology and American Landscape Painting.

In addition to its academic nature, geology has applications ranging from site selection, hazard estimation and mitigation, to exploration and production of water,. Geography And Geology – Nature Interpreter – Medium. Feb 7, 2017 Last month, President Donald Trump took steps to make good on a campaign promise to turn the United States existing border fence into a big. Geology of Duluth Members Only Hartley Nature Center. Geology. Geology is broadly the study of the Earth and other planets, moons, and smaller planetary bodies. Fields of geology range from the initial formation and differentiation of the Earth to modern surface processes, such as erosion and soil formation, and include Earth system history and the evolution of life. The Nature of Science Geology Reading. Geologists believe that the diamonds in all of Earths commercial diamond deposits. The Nature of Diamonds are Found on Continental Cores.

Bedell, R.: The Anatomy of Nature Geology and American.

Yoga and Geology. Paying Attention to Nature. Geologist Kelly Bradbury, research assistant professor in the USU Department of Geology, relaxes in the newly. A NATION CHALLENGED: GEOLOGY Nature Made The Perfect. Explorations of aesthetic design and scientific experimentation have traditionally relied upon the natural world as a source of inspiration. Notably absent from. Geology Memphis Museums. Many students are attracted to careers in geoscience because of the opportunity to work outdoors, often in beautiful environs located far from the busy trappings. INat for Geology? Nature Talk iNaturalist Community Forum. The Geology of a Part of Acadia and the Nature of the Acadian Orogeny Across. and sphene in 25 rocks that clarify the timing and nature of Acadian tectonic.

The Natural History Society of Maryland Nature Connections.

Inscriptions of Nature Geology and the Naturalization of Antiquity 1 Description In the nineteenth century, they started digging the earth, like never before. Nature of cracks in geology. Apr 11, 2017 On this Nature Night, Dr. Scott Burns, Professor of Geology at Portland State University, will show you how the different provinces were formed. Geology, Rocks, & Minerals Natures Workshop Plus. Oct 7, 2019 Nature Geoscience covers all aspects of the Earth sciences, including theoretical 2nd Edition of World Congress on Geology & Earth Science.

Junior Explorer Geology and Fossils Bureau of Land Management.

Apr 18, 2016 The Royal Oak Nature Society is offering a host of educational programs. Nature of the Work Geological Sciences Program The George. Here youll find resources on Geology and its subcategories. Enchanted Rock State Natural Area Nature Texas Parks. NATURE VOL 409 11 JANUARY 2001 www. 175 School of Applied Geology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987. Perth, Australia. Discovery Southeast, JuneauNature Nature Geology. Children must be accompanied by an adult during Nature Discovery Hour. Waterfall Trailhead as he leads you on a hike about the geology of the White Tanks.

Sinks Canyon Natural Resource Council Nature Geology.

Loading data. Open Bottom Panel. Go to previous Content Download this Content Share this Content Add This Content to Favorites Go to next Content. ← →. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological. Read the latest Research articles in Geology from Nature Geoscience. Planetary geology. Nov 15, 2016 The history of geology can develop authentic understanding of the nature of science NOS for our students. Historical controversies offer a.

Nature of Geology.

No articles found. Institute of Geology and Nature Management, FEB RAS did not contribute to any primary research papers from Nature Index journals in the. Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust. Oct 26, 2014 Earth rocks! Discover what makes up the core of our planet and the many different geological features that are found throughout the world. Geology Evidence of life in Earths oldest rocks. NCBI. Come join us this week at Shangri La Gardens as we explore the world of geology and discover what makes rocks, ROCK! We will conduct hands on. Geology of mankind ReadCube. Fiery Furnace: Nature, Geology on display See 457 traveler reviews, 398 candid photos, and great deals for Arches National Park, UT, at TripAdvisor. 500 Geology Pictures Download Free Images on Unsplash. Oct 22, 2019 Diagram from Diana Agrests Architecture of Nature of The focus on nature, seen through geologic data point clouds and weather.

Nature Geoscience.

We havent encountered any circumstances yet in which physical laws do not operate. We can witness geologic processes and then look at the evidence they. Science, Nature and a Biscuit The Geology of Seward Park. Aug 13, 2015 About the Park Nature Natural Features & Ecosystems Geologic Formations Interesting geologic formations are scattered throughout the park. This geology map of the Santa Monica Mountains was designed so that. Nature Night: Dynamic Geology of Oregon Audubon Society of. Oct 20, 2019 Park Ranger Eric Creter leads a tour of the parks coolest geological sites. On site at Cunningham Falls State Park Nature Fit Geology Hike. The Shape of Our Forests A Geology Walk The Nature. The evidence for discrediting the mineral is analyzed to show that the natural mineral cannot be regarded as a mere mixture of hematite, anatase, rutile and.

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →